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你对室内空气健康风险的看法可能是错误的

发布时间:2019-11-03 20:40:19  来源:好孕妈妈社区    采编:太子阁生殖专家  

  根据芬兰健康福利研究所的国家室内空气调查,人们认为与室内空气相关的健康风险比研究数据显示的更大更严重。首次调查了芬兰人对室内空气的认知和风险信念。

  对这一课题的研究很重要,因为对室内空气在人体健康中的作用的不同看法可能会引起混淆。共识对于解决建筑室内空气问题和卫生保健人员的治疗也很重要。

  几乎所有的建筑物都存在一定程度的水分损害,但只有一小部分增加了哮喘的风险。

  根据研究数据,几乎所有的建筑在其生命周期的某个阶段都会发生水分损伤和微生物损伤。只有一小部分损害严重到足以增加患哮喘的风险。

  然而,超过一半的受访者认为,即使是轻微的水分损害也会对人类健康造成严重威胁,因此应立即采取措施修复损害。

  “指导原则是必须预防和修复湿气损害。健康风险有多大、必须采取的行动有多紧急,取决于损害的程度和有关房屋的使用水平,”朱哈·佩卡宁教授解释说。

  放线菌可能是水分损害的迹象,但不是室内空气对健康有害的明确迹象。

  约三分之二的受访者认为放线菌的发生是室内空气对健康有害的明确迹象。

  根据研究数据,放线菌可能是建筑内水分损害或微生物损害的迹象,但放线菌在建筑内的发生并不自动证明使用建筑会对人体健康造成危害。

  芬兰健康与福利研究所的研究教授Anne Hyvarinen说:“应该由合格的专业人员对建筑进行全面评估。”

  人们接触放线菌,例如,当他们从事自然活动时,因为放线菌在我们的环境中很常见。它们也可以在土壤和室外空气中找到,当地面没有冻结。

  建筑物必须检查,因为症状不能作为室内空气中杂质的直接指标。

  近60%的受访者发现很难评估一个人的呼吸道症状是由室内空气或其他因素引起的。

  根据研究数据,与室内空气有关的症状不能作为有害室内空气的直接指标。症状的发展总是因人而异的,除了室内空气中的杂质外,还有其他因素导致症状(如年龄、健康状况和压力因素,如工作和学校的享受程度和满意度)。对有害影响的恐惧和信念也可能导致客观可测量的症状和生理反应。

  “建筑的使用者对室内环境感到满意是很重要的。他们报告的症状和与室内空气质量有关的经验,如气味、闷热或温度,也提供了宝贵的额外信息,当与建筑相关的问题被研究和评估计划时,”芬兰健康和福利研究所的首席医师Jussi Lampi解释说。

  研究数据将引导我们改善室内环境质量,改善人们的待遇

  国家室内空气调查是芬兰室内空气与健康项目的一部分。调查的目的是探讨芬兰人对室内空气健康影响的风险信念和知识。该调查随机抽取了1797名年龄在25岁至64岁之间的芬兰人,并将他们邮寄到了自己的家中。
 

According to the National indoor air survey by Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, people believe that the health risks related to indoor air are greater and more serious than they are according to the research data. Finns’ knowledge and risk beliefs related to indoor air were surveyed for the first time.

Research on the subject is important, because differing beliefs on the role of indoor air in human health may cause confusion. Common understanding is also important for finding solutions to indoor air problems in buildings and the treatment of people in health care.

Some degree of moisture damage can be found in almost all buildings, but only a small proportion increases the risk of asthma.

According to research data, moisture damage and microbial damage occurs in almost all buildings at some point of their lifecycle. Only a small proportion of the damage is severe enough to increase the risk of developing asthma.

However, well over one half of the respondents of the survey considered the risk posed to human health by even minor moisture damage to be so severe that action to repair the damage should be taken immediately.

“The guiding principle is that moisture damage has to be prevented and repaired. How great the health risk is and how urgently action must be taken depends on matters such as the extent of the damage and the level of usage of the premises concerned,” explains Professor Juha Pekkanen.

Actinomycetes may be a sign of moisture damage, but not a definite sign of indoor air being harmful to health.

Approximately two thirds of the respondents considered the occurrence of actinomycetes to be a definite sign that indoor air is harmful to health.

Based on research data, actinomycetes may be a sign of moisture damage or microbial damage in the building, but their occurrence in the building does not automatically prove that it would be harmful to people’s health to use the building.

“A comprehensive assessment of the building should be carried out by qualified professionals,” says Research Professor Anne Hyvärinen from the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare.

People come into contact with actinomycetes, for example, when they engage in activities in nature, because actinomycetes are common in our environment. They can also be found in the soil and in outdoor air when the ground is not frozen.

Buildings must be examined as symptoms cannot be used as a direct indicator of impurities in indoor air.

Almost 60 percent of the respondents found it difficult to assess whether the respiratory symptoms of a person are caused by indoor air or some other factor.

Based on research data, symptoms associated with indoor air cannot be used as a direct indicator of harmful indoor air. The development of symptoms is always individual and there are also other factors that contribute to symptoms (e.g. age, state of health and stress factors, such as the level of enjoyment and satisfaction at work and at school) in addition to impurities in indoor air. Fears and beliefs of harmful effects may also cause objectively measurable symptoms and physiological responses.

“It is important that the users of the building are satisfied with the indoor environment. Their reported symptoms and experiences related to the indoor air quality, such as smells, stuffiness or the temperature, also provide valuable additional information when problems related to the building are studied and assessments are planned,” explains Chief Physician Jussi Lampi from the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare.

Research data will lead us towards a better quality of indoor environments and better treatment of people

The National indoor air survey was conducted as part of the Finnish Indoor Air and Health Programme. The aim of the survey was to explore Finns’ risk beliefs and knowledge on the health effects of indoor air. A random sample of 1,797 Finns aged between 25 and 64 responded to the survey that was mailed to their home addresses.

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